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Wikipedia (Lalela / ˌwɪkɨpiːdiə / nobe Listeni / ˌwɪkipiːdiə / Wik-i-pee-dee-ə)ifinyeleleka mahala, kutholakala mahala ku-encyclopedia ekwi-inthanethi, isekelwa futhi isingathwa yi-Wikimedia Foundation. Cishe wonke umuntu okwazi ukufinyelela isayithi [4] angahlela pheze yiziphi izihloko zayo. I-Wikipedia yiyona webhusayiti yesithupha ethandwa kakhulu [3]futhi ethandwa kakhulu jikelele ngomsebenzi we-inthanethi BakaJehova. [5] [6] [7] Njengoba ngo 2014, yayina-18 yamabhiliyoni wamaphepha abukwayo, futhi abukwa yizivakashi cishe eyizigidi ezingu-500 ngenyanga ngayinye. [8]

UJimmy Wales noLarry Singer bomkhankaso-we-Wikipedia n ngomhlaka-15 kuJanuwari 15, 2001 u- babiza igama lakhe, ukuthi yi-Singer [9] called his name, [10] CAPS of Wiki (isuselwa egameni lesiHawayi elisho "Shesha" [11] ne-ensayiklopidiya. Noma-ke ulwazi olungaphakathi kwe-wikipediya kwasekuqaleni lidabuka esiNgisini, yasheshe yabhalwa ngezilimi eziningi,lokhu kwenziwa ngokuthi kuhlonywe uhlelo lokuhumusha ngezilimi ezahlukahlukene. Yonke imihlobo ye-Wikipidiya iyafana, kodwa umehluko obalulekile okwindikimba nakwindlela yoku-editha. Manje i-Wikipidiya yesiNgisi idinga ama-Wikipidiya angaphezu kwama-200, noma-kunjalo ibonakala iyinkulu kakhulu kunezinye, kanti ngama-athikili ayizigidi ezi-4.5a uye wazakhela idumela njengoba umthombo wezindaba ngenxa yokubuyekezwa kwayo okusheshayo kwezihloko ezihlobene nezindaba ezikhishwayo. [12] [13] [14] Ngaphezu kwalokho, kulula ukungena ku-Wikipidiya eziphakeme kuqhathaniswa ensayiklopidiya odlule kanye ukufakwa walo kokuqukethwe okuningi unacademic baye bathola ebanzi abezindaba ukunakwa.

Kufakaza obala Wikipidiya eziphakeme futhi kuye kwaholela abanye ukukhathazeka, njenge izinga lokubhala yayo, [15] phansi kanye nokunemba imininingwane yayo. [16] [17] Nokho, nakuba ezinye izihloko zinemiBhalo engaqinisekisiwe noma ulwazi ayihlangani, [18] a 2005 inhlolovo of Wikipedia eyanyatheliswa ngo Nature ngokusekelwe ngokuqhathanisa 42 wesayensi athikili nge Encyclopædia Britannica wathola ukuthi ezingeni Wikipedia sika zokunemba kwakusondela Encyclopædia Britannica kanye bobabili amazinga ezifanayo eliphansi 'amaphutha amabi ". [19] Njengoba ka 2014, iwikipidiya yesiNgisi iqukethe cishe abayizigidi ezinhlanu izihloko, abangaphezu koyedwa kayikhulu Britannica sika 40,000. [20] izinqubomgomo zeWikipidiya zihlanganisa ukuqinisekisa kanye nomzimba elikhulayo amazinga kubandakanya for izinga siqinisekiso. [21]

Imvelo[hlela | edit source]

"Njengoba ihlaya athandwa uya, 'Inkinga ngeWikipidiya ukuthi nje usebenza ukuzijwayeza. Ngokwethiyori, singaphinde ukusebenza. '"

-Miikka Ryökäs

Kulungisa[hlela | edit source]

Umehluko emakhasini wencwajana enesihloko ezivezwe njengoba kuboniswe. 

Ngokungafani kwe-insayiklopidiya yendabuko, Wikipedia kungenziwa eyahlelwa yimuphi umfundi. Ngaphandle kwamakhasi ikakhulukazi ezizwelayo kanye / nobe phansi yizikhukhula ukuthi abizwa "evikelwe" ngezinga elithile, [23] Wikipedia izivakashi bangahlela izihloko ngisho noma abanalo akhawunti Wikipedia. Ezithile Omagazini abalandelayo lulwimi zinikeza indlela eguquliwe yale nqubomgomo; Ngokwesibonelo, abasebenzisi ezibhalisiwe nje angase adale isihloko esisha ku neyesiNgisi. [24] Isihloko njalo acekelwa phansi kungaba Semi-ezivikelwe, okusho ukuthi nje esungulwe, abasebenzisi iqinisekiswe bayakwazi ukwenza ukuhlela kuleso sihloko. [25] A ikakhulukazi Isihloko ingxabano zingase PUK ukuze abaphathi nje ziyakwazi ukwenza izinguquko. [26] sihloko babonwa ephethwe uMdali walo noma ezinye umhleli futhi hhayi vetted ngu yimuphi igunya eqashelwayo. [27] Kunalokho, abahleli abangalala ukuze bavumelane nokuqukethwe kanye nokwakheka ezihlokweni by kuvunyelwana. 

Ngokuzenzakalelayo, i uhlela ukuba isihloko ngokushesha iba etholakalayo. Ngenxa yalokho, bangase izihloko inezinto ezinganembile, biases ehlukile, futhi nombhalo elingenangqondo kodwa eliphimiselekayo shu kuze umhleli ilungisa nokushiyeka okunjalo. Lehlukene edishini, ngamunye ngaphansi ehlukile control tekuphatsa, bakhululekile ukushintsha le nqubomgomo. Ngokwesibonelo, i-Wikipedia German ucondza "izinguqulo ezinzile" lwezihloko, [28] okuyinto Sekudlule izibuyekezo ezithile. Kulandela nezilingo eyayizothatha isikhathi eside nengxoxo nomphakathi, iwikipidiya yesiNgisi yethula uhlelo "lwezinguquko ozilindile" ngoZibandlela ka 2012. [29] Ngaphansi kwalesi simiso, umsebenzi omusha ohloliwe abasebenzisi ezintsha awasho izihloko ezithile impikiswano noma ukucekelwa phansi kwempahla yizikhukhula kungaba 'ngokweyame abukeze kusukela Wikipedia esungulwe umhleli ngaphambi ncwadi ". 

Esibonakalayo kwemaphutsa of Wikipedia 

Ukubuyekezwa izinguquko[hlela | edit source]

Nakuba izinguquko kungukuthi ehlelekile kubuyekezwe, isofthiwe ukuthi amandla Wikipedia inikeza amathuluzi athile sivumele noma ubani ukuba abukeze izinguquko kwabanye. Ilhasi elinalokhu "Umlando" wesihloko ngasinye ulandisa izibuyekezo. [Amanothi 1] [30] Abahleli angayiqeda izinguquko, isibonelo ecaleni lapho kokuqukethwe ewusizo lasuswa. Abahleli Ungabuka izinguquko zewebhusayiti yakamuva, iziphi ukhonjiswe ukuhlelwa kwezenzakalo reverse. Qhaza avamile ngokuvamile silondoloza 'uhlu' lwezihloko ukuthi ukuwaheha ukuze zikwazi aziswe izinguquko esizayo. Ikhasi elisha kuyinqubo lapho izihloko abasanda wadala kuthiwa ihlolwe ukuze izinkinga ezisobala. [31] 

Kulungisa Automated[hlela | edit source]

Izinhlelo zekhompyutha ziye zisetshenziswa kabanzi ukwenza imisebenzi elula futhi engamukelekile, ezifana sokulungisa nasekupeleteni ezivamile kanye nezindaba zezindlela namacebo okuloba, noma ukuqala izihloko ezifana nesifundo somhlaba okufakwe ifomathi evamile kusuka idatha ezibalo. [32] [33] [34] Onesandla kwimpikiswano bakamalalahlengezela ukudala izihloko kanye bot wakhe kwabikwa ukudala kuze izihloko eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi ezikuWikipidiya yesiSwideni ngezinsuku ezithile. [35] Kukhona ezinye bots eyenzelwe axwayise ngokuzenzakalelayo abasebenzisi okwenza ovamile kwemaphutsa amaphutha (ezifana izingcaphuno angenakuqhathaniswa nobe obakaki olungenakuqhathaniswa ), [36] futhi avimbele ukudalwa izixhumanisi amawebhusayithi ethile. Bots nazo isicelo lokuvala enforcements okuyinto thola futhi buyisela izinguquko osolisayo abasebenzisi ezintsha, IPS okwabelwana noma IPS ibamba kuya amakhasi ihlushwa sockpuppets njengendlela ukuphinda kungenzeka of umsebenzisi ezivinjelwe kusetshenziswa ezinye izindlela amakheli IP. [Ukulandisa ezidingekayo] Abanye abasebenzisi kungaba lokubuyisa nanoma iyiphi ukuhlela yokuthi musa abonakale ngumsebenzisi zivinjelwe mbuzo. Esinye bot lichazwa ngokuthi i bot anti-ocekela phansi ukuthi izama ukuthola kanye nokubuyela phansi ngokushesha futhi ngokuzenzakalelayo. [37] futhi Bots ungabika uku-editha ezivela akhawunti ethile noma ikheli IP zokhahlamba njengoba kwakwenziwa ngesikhathi the MH17 jet ukubeka phansi isigameko ngoJulayi 2014. [38] Bots on Wikipedia kufanele yamukeleke ngaphambi kusebenze. [39] 

Ngokusho Andrew Lih, ukwanda lamanje Wikipedia izigidi zihloko kwakuyoba nzima ukucabanga ngaphandle kokusebenzisa bots enjalo. [40] 

Ukucekela phansi impahla[hlela | edit source]

Isihloko Main: Ukucekela phansi impahla on Wikipedia 

Yikuphi uku-editha ukuthi eshintsha nokuqukethwe ngendlela ukuxegisa ngamabomu ubuqotho beWikipidiya kubhekwa phansi. Izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu futhi ezisobala phansi zihlanganisa ukufakwa kwenhlamba kanye amahlaya angahluziwe. Ukucekela phansi impahla kungase futhi kuhlanganise ukukhangisa ulimi, kanye nezinye izinhlobo. [41] Ngezinye izikhathi abahleli babophezela phansi ngokususa ulwazi noma libhaliwe ngumtshini ngokuphelele ikhasi elinikeziwe. Izinhlobo Okungajwayelekile ukuzicekela phansi impahla, ezifana kwalokho ngamabomu yokwaziswa zizinhle kodwa ongathembekile isihloko, kungaba nzima ukubona. Izichwensi kungazenza ukufometha ayibalulekile, shintsha ikhasi elingasho lutho elifana nesihloko ikhasi noma ukwehlukanisa ngemikhakha, lokuxhaphaza ikhodi elicashile lesihloko noma ukusebenzisa izithombe ngendlela ebhidlizayo. [42] 

Onezinwele ezimhlophe umnumzana osekhulile isudi kanye nothayi ukhuluma ngesikhathi sokukhuluma. 

Intatheli yaseMelika uJohn Seigenthaler (1927-2014), indaba yesigameko (uSeigenthaler) 

Ukucekelwa phansi kwempahla kusobala ngokuvamile kulula ukususa izihloko zeWikipidiya; isikhathi yamaMede ukuthola futhi silungise phansi nje imizuzu embalwa. [16] [17] Nokho, abanye phansi kudinga isikhathi eside ukulungisa. 

Ngokwesibonelo, kwesinye isehlakalo esiphezulu, umhleli ongaziwa wethula isaziso esingamanga singene bibliyogilafu yezombusazwe UmMelika uJohn Seigenthaler, ngo-2005 Seigenthaler wamangalelwa ukwethulwa njengendlela yokusolwa ngokubulala uJohn F. Kennedy. [43] Lesi sihloko sahlala singalungiswanga izinyanga ezine. [43] USeigenthaler, umqondisi owasungula isihloko of seMelika (USA)namhlanje, kanye umsunguli Freedom Forum First Amendment Center ngaseNyuvesi yaseVanderbilt, ebizwa Wikipedia co-umsunguli Jimmy Wales futhi wabuza ukuthi ayenakho yini indlela yokwazi ukuthi obani nesandla the ukwaziswa okungelona iqiniso. UWales waphendula ngokuthi ayizange, nakuba isephulamthetho sagcina ngokuhlehlela emuva. [44] [45] Emva kwesigameko, uSeigenthaler echazwe yiWikipidiya ngokuthi "inamaphutha futhi imithwalo ithuluzi lokucwaninga". [43] Lesi senzakalo zaholela izinguquko zenqubomgomo yeWikipidiya, ngokuqondile kubhekiswe ukuqiniswa kokuqinisekiswa kwezihloko umlandvomufi abantu abaphila. [46] 


==Imithetho kanye nemithetho elawula nokuqukethwe kanye nomhleli nokuziphatha== 

Okuqukethwe yiWikipidiya kuncike kwimithetho (ikakhulukazi, imithetho yobunikazi) yase United States kanye of the US isimo Virginia, lapho iningi Lamaseva WEWikipidiya lisuke likuphi. Ngaphezu kwezindaba zomthetho, izimiso sesihloko seWikipidiya kuthiwa esisekelwe 'wezinsika emihlanu ", kanye nezinqubomgomo eziningi neziqondiso enzelwe ukuba balolonge okuqukethwe ngokufanele. Ngisho le mithetho igcinwa ifomu wiki, futhi Wikipidiya abahleli njengendlela bhala emphakathini abuyekeze izinqubomgomo webhusayiti kanye nemihlahlandlela. [47] Abahleli kungabaqhuba la imithetho ngokususa noma ukulungisa imithetho engasebenziyo. Ekuqaleni, nemithetho on ezinhlelweni okungezona zesiNgisi seWikipidiya zazisekelwe inguquko yemithetho yeWikipidiya yesiNgisi. Iye yehluke ngezinga elingakanani. 


Ikhasi elikhulu leWikipidiya yesiNgisi mhla zinga 20 kuMfumfu ka 2010, IKhasi eliyinhloko leWikipidiya yesiNgisi. 

Inguqulo mobile yeWikipidiya yesiNgisi eKhasini elikhulu kwisiphequluli sewebhu Android on a i5800 Samsung 

Inguquko yemobile yesiNgisi Ekhasini elikhulu 

Izinqubomgomo bokuqukethwe[hlela | edit source]

Page Main: Wikipedia: Izinqubomgomo zokuqukethwe 

Ngokuvumelana nemithetho on the English Wikipedia, ngamunye entry e Wikipedia, ukuba afanelwe ukufakwa, kumele kube ngesihloko okusho encyclopedic futhi akuyona entry isichazamazwi noma isichazamazwi-like. [48] A sihloko kufanele futhi bahlangabezane nezindinganiso Wikipedia sika of "notability", [49] ngokuvamile kusho ukuthi kumelwe ukuba wathola Ukusabalala okuphawulekayo imithombo secondary efana media ezivamile- noma zamaphephabhuku ezinkulu yemfundo ezimele ngendaba ka ngesihloko. Ngaphezu kwalokho, Wikipedia uhlose idlulisele lwati kuphela ukuthi kakade osungulwe futhi wahlonishwa. [50] It akumele ukwethula ulwazi olusha noma ucwaningo original. A bathi kungenzeka ukuba inselele kudinga kukhulunywa emthonjeni onokwethenjelwa. Phakathi Wikipedia abahleli, lokhu ngokuvamile wabekwa ngokuthi "Isiqinisekiso, hhayi ngeqiniso 'ukuveza umqondo wokuthi abafundi, hhayi encyclopedia, yibona ekugcineni abanomthwalo ekubhekeni yiqiniso komunci nokwenza nekuhumusha zabo siqu. [51] Lokhu kungaholela ukususwa ukwaziswa isebenza, ngaleyo ndlela bulimaze ukufakwa kolwazi kanye nokukhula encyclopedia. [52] Ekugcineni, Wikipedia akumele bathathe izinhlangothi. [53] Bonke imibono kanye nemibono, uma ezibangelwa imithombo yangaphandle, kumele bajabulele i share elifanele Ukuhlanganisa kungakapheli isihloko. [54] Lo waziwa ngokuthi indawo hlangothi of umbono (NPOV). 


Open ukubambisana[hlela | edit source]

Bheka futhi: Okuqukethwe okukhiqizwe ngumsebenzisi 

Ngo-2003,umfundi wePhD kwezomnotho u-Andrea Ciffolilli wagomela ukuthi izindleko eziphansi zokuthengiselana zineqhaza kwiWikipidiya.Ukwakha kulethe ukuthuthukiswa ngokubambisana, nokuthi izici ezifana nokufinyelela okulula izinguqulo ezidlule of a umusa page "ukwakhiwa zokudala" phezu "imbubhiso zokudala". [55] encwadini yakhe 2008, Ikusasa Internet nendlela Stop It, Zittrain ugagula yempumelelo Wikipedia sokuba isifundo njalo emisha kangakanani open ukubambisana uye wakhuthaza kuwebhu. [56] 


Ku OOPSLA 2009, kuWikimidiya isikhulu kwezobuchwepheshe kanye nomklami ophakeme wesoftiwe uBrion Vibber wanikeza isethulo esithi "Ukusebenza noMphakathi kwenza izinto zibe ngcono: Ukwenza abantu bakho basebenze kahle kuSayithi Yakho" [57] kuwo okuxoxwe nezinselele ukusingatha iminikelo evela emphakathini enkulu futhi wafanisa inqubo yalowo yentuthuko softiwe. 


Ifayela: Ukuhlela isihloko esithi Hoxne hoard kuBritish Museum.ogv 

Abasebenzisi beWikipidiya nabaphathi bamaziko Wezikhungo zamagugu emilando basebenzisana ngesihloko esithi Hoxne hoard ngoJuni 2010. 

Ngezinye izikhathi abasebenzisi beWikipidiya banika omunye nomunye imisebenzi emihle ukuze bazise imisebenzi eyahlukahlukene yenani elishaya kude, uku-editha izinto ezilula ezihlanganisa ukwesekwa kwezenhlalo, izenzo zokuphatha, kanye izinhlobo zomsebenzi ukuhambisana. Lomkhuba barnstar iye ihlaziye ukunquma lokho kunemithelela kungenzeka for ezinye imiphakathi waziphatha ezinkulu Sangdi. [58] 

==Ukuxazululwa== 

Uma ushintsho ngokuphindaphindiwe owabangelwa umhleli eyodwa abese ukuhlehliswa ngenye, i "Hlela war" ingase wagomela ukuba sebeqale. [59] [60] Wikipedia has izindlela eziningi izingxabano sokuxazulula. Ukuze athole umphakathi ukuvumelana wonkana, abahleli angamvusa izingqinamba at the Village Pump noma iqale isicelo Comment. Izinkundla akhethekile akhona for centralizing ingxoxo izinqumo ezithile, njengabaphostoli yini noma cha isihloko kufanele asuswe. (qhathanisa Notability in English Wikipedia.) 


Arbitration Committee[hlela | edit source]

Isihloko Main: Arbitration Committee 

IKomiti Arbitration wengamela lokugcina ukuxazululwa indlela. Nakuba izingxabano ngokuvamile bavele kokungezwani imibono emibili ephikisayo kanjani izihloko okufanele ukufunda, iKomidi Arbitration ngokucacile enqaba ngqo abuse ngalo umbono okufanele yokutholwa. Zokuhlaziya imininingwane zisikisela ukuthi ikomidi engayinaki okuqukethwe ezingxabanweni futhi ligxile endleleni izimpikiswano kuqhutshwa kunalokho, [61] esebenza cha kangaka ukuxazulula izingxabano futhi wenze ukuthula phakathi abahleli ezingqubuzanayo, kodwa ukuze Zikhipha abahleli eziyinkinga uma uvumela abahleli engase ikhiqize back e ukubamba iqhaza. Ngakho-ke, ikomidi asisho zilawule okuqukethwe lwezihloko, yize ngezinye izikhathi kube liyakulahla izinguquko kokuqukethwe uma ibona okuqukethwe entsha wephula izinqubomgomo Wikipedia (isibonelo, uma okuqukethwe entsha kubhekwa olubandlululayo). Amakhambi Its zihlanganisa nezixwayiso kanye probations (elisetshenziswa 63% of amacala) kanye nabahleli esivala kusuka ezihlokweni (43%), izindaba subject (23%) noma Wikipedia (16%). Complete nokuvinjelwa kusuka Wikipedia kuthiwa ikakhulu kuphela izimo of ukuzenza ongeyena nokuziphatha anti-social. Lapho ukuziphatha akuyona ukuzenza ongeyena nobe anti-kwezenhlalo, kodwana kunalokho anti-ukuvumelana nobe wephula izinqubomgomo ukuhlela, izixwayiso bavame ukuba ikhishwe. [62] 


Community[hlela | edit source]

Isihloko Main: Wikipedia emphakathini 


Wikimania, kwaba nengqungquthela yonyaka kubasebenzisi of Wikipedia nezinye imiklamo eziqhutshwa yi-Wikimedia Foundation 

Ngamunye sihloko kanye umsebenzisi of Wikipedia ngamunye uye i wahlobanisa page "Ngokukhululekile". Lezi zakha oyinhloko zokuxhumana umzila abahleli ukuxoxa luphinde nenkhulumomphikiswano izindaba kokuqukethwe noma inqubomgomo. [63] 


Umphakathi Wikipedia sika uye wachazwa ngokuthi inkolo-like, [64] nakuba ngaso sonke anezincazelo ngokuphelele negative. [65] ukuthanda Iphrojekthi sika for cohesiveness, ngisho noma kudinga ukuhlehla ehlanganisa ukunganakwa of kokuqinisekisa, yaziwe njengoba 'anti-elitism ". [66] 

Izibalo zabantu of Wikipedia abahleli 

Wikipedia ayidingi ukuba abahleli balo kanye neqhaza ahlinzeke ukuhlonza. [67] Njengoba Wikipedia ayekhula, "Ngubani uyabhala Wikipedia?" saba omunye imibuzo evame ukubuzwa on kuphrojekthi, ngokuvamile ngokubhekisela eminye imisebenzi Web 2.0 ezifana Digg [ukulandisa okudingekayo]. [68] kanye Jimmy Wales wagomela ngokuthi "kuphela emphakathini ... iqembu elizinikezele ambalwa amavolontiya "kwenza ingxenye enkulu yomsebenzi iminikelo eya Wikipedia nokuthi ngalokho hlelo 'njenganoma iyiphi inhlangano wendabuko". Ngo-2008, a Slate umagazini esihlokweni wabika ukuthi: ". Abacwaningi e Palo Alto, 1 amaphesenti of abasebenzisi Wikipedia banesibopho cishe isigamu lezinhlelo isayithi sika" [69] Le ndlela yokuhlaziya iminikelo kamuva phikisa ngu Aaron Swartz, ngubani yaphawula ukuthi izihloko eziningana yena banambitha kwadingeka izingxenye ezinkulu okuqukethwe kwabo (kukalwa inani abalingiswa) nesandla abasebenzisi nge low Hlela esikwenzayo kubalulekile. [70] 

Ucwaningo 2010 (olusha ngo 2012) ukuthi kwenziwa ngcono ikhombisa ukukhula Wikipedia futhi empeleni ukulungiswa it. [Ukulandisa ezidingekayo] 

Ucwaningo lwenziwa ngo 2012 Wikipedia kwadingeka abasebenzisi abakhuthele cishe 80.000. [71] [hhayi ukulandisa inikezwe] [ukulandisa okudingekayo] Kuze kuya 60% of abasebenzisi Wikipedia ebhalisiwe ungalokothi wenze esinye edit emva kwamahora zabo zokuqala 24. [Lapho?] Izincazelo ezingabanga ukuthi abasebenzisi enjalo ukubhalisela nje injongo olulodwa, noma uyesaba away by nakho kwabo. [72] Ngokusho Eric Goldman, abahleli abahluleka ukuhambisana Wikipedia imicikilisho zamasiko, ezifana inkulumo ukusayina amakhasi, ngokuphelele eyobonisa ukuthi kukhona Wikipedia abangaphandle, okwandisa amathuba okuthi Wikipedia wangaphakathi ngeke libhekise iminikelo yabo njengomuntu usongo. Abe ngaphakathi Wikipedia kuhilela izindleko non-eziwubala: the sandla kulindeleke ukwakha ikhasi yomsebenzisi, ufunde amakhodi zobuchwepheshe Wikipedia-eziqondene, bazithobe i Arcane ukuxazululwa inqubo, futhi sifunde "isiko Okumangaza ocebile nge e-emahlaya ngaphakathi ezibhekisela" . Non-ngemvume-in abasebenzisi kukhona kwezinye izakhamuzi ngomqondo lesibili class on Wikipedia, [73] ngokuthi "abahlanganyeli basuke izitifiketi ngamalungu omphakathi wiki, abanezincwadi nesithakazelo ilungelo lokufuna ekulondolozeni ikhwalithi umkhiqizo msebenzi, ngesisekelo iqhaza kwabo eziqhubekayo ", [74] kanti imilando umnikelo amakheli IP angeke ngempela nanoma yimuphi ngokuqiniseka kufanele zafundiswa noma sola phezu, umsebenzisi esithile. 

A 2007 Ukutadisha by abacwaningi ezivela Dartmouth College wathola ukuthi "qhaza engaziwa futhi okuvamile kuya Wikipedia [...] injengoba esinokwethenjelwa umthombo wolwazi njengalabo nomthelela ngubani babhalise esizeni". [75] A 2009 Ukutadisha by umhleli Business Insider nentatheli Henry Blodget [76] wabonisa kutsi in isampula okungahleliwe athikili wokuqukethwe kunawo Wikipedia (kukalwa inani lombhalo nomthelela esindayo kuze edit yakamuva banambitha) is adalwe "kwabangaphandle" (abasebenzisi nge low edit okuzama), kanti kulungisa iningi futhi kwebinza lwenziwa "wangaphakathi" (iqembu khetha of abasebenzisi esungulwe). A 2008 Ukutadisha lwathola ukuthi Wikipedians ayemancane ovumelana, evulekile, futhi kanembeza kunabanye. [77] [78] A 2009 cwaningo wasikisela kwakukhona 'ubufakazi nokumelana ezikhula emphakathini Wikipedia kokuqukethwe entsha ". [79] 

Ucwaningo oluthile lwathola ukuthi isizinda sandla kuya Wikipedia "kwaba kancane 13% abesifazane; yobudala isilinganiso esivivaneni kwaba maphakathi nawo-20s" [80] A 2011 Ukutadisha by abacwaningi baseNyuvesi Minnesota lwathola ukuthi abesifazane sakhiwe 16.1% of. abahleli 38,497 owaqala ukuhlela Wikipedia-2009 [81] Ngo isihloko January 2011 New York Times, Noam Cohen waphawula ukuthi 13% nje of nomthelela Wikipedia kukhona female ngokusho vo 2009 Wikimedia Foundation. [82] Sue Gardner, owayekade umqondisi ophethe i Wikimedia Foundation, uthemba ukubona iminikelo zesifazane ukwandisa kuya amaphesenti amabili nanhlanu by 2015 [83] Linda Basch, ongumongameli we-National Council for Research on Women, yaphawula umehluko kulezi Wikipedia umhleli izibalo kanye iphesenti labesifazane njengamanje acedzele degrees impohlo sika, degrees master kanye PhD nezinhlelo e-United States (bonke at amazinga amaphesenti 50 noma xaxa). [84] 


Esabela, amanyuvesi ahlukahlukene aye aphatha edit-a-thons ukukhuthaza abesifazane abengeziwe ukuba bahlanganyele emphakathini Wikipedia. In kokuwa 2013, amakolishi 15 no emanyuvesi, kuhlanganise Yale, Brown, no Pennsylvania State, banikela wasekolishi udumo abafundi ukuba 'ukubhala ukucabanga ezilwela amalungelo abesifazane' phakathi Wikipedia mayelana nobuchwepheshe [ukulandisa okudingekayo]. Nokho, bambalwa abesifazane aqhubeka amalungu usasebenza of Wikipedia ngemuva edit-a-thons ayengamele. Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi kungani, ukusabela ezivamile kwaba ukuthi kwakumelwe 'bematasa ". [85] 


Abaphathi[hlela | edit source]

Abahleli in nokuma okuhle emphakathini ezohamba for omunye amazinga eziningi zokuzithandela buphathi: le iqala "nomqondisi", [86] [87] abasebenzisi anelungelo abangakwazi susa amakhasi, ukuvimbela izihloko ekubeni kwashintsha uma phansi nobe isihloko izingxabano , futhi bazame ukuvimbela abantu abathile evela kwemaphutsa. Naphezu igama, abaphathi kungukuthi okuthiwa ukujabulela yimuphi lungelo elikhethekile ngo ekuthathweni; kunalokho, amandla abo anesizotha kuphela ekwenzeni edits ukuba nemiphumela project-ububanzi futhi ngaleyo ndlela kuthiwa Ayivumeliwe kuya abahleli avamile, nokuqhamuka nemingcele ezihloselwe ukuvimbela abantu abathile evela ekwenzeni edits onakalisayo (efana phansi). [88] [89] 


Abahleli abangaphansi baba abaphathi kunokuba eminyakeni esidlule, ngokwengxenye ngenxa inqubo ekunqabeleni engahle Wikipedia abaphathi isibe ezinzima zamandla angaphezu. [90] 


Ulimi Amahumusho[hlela | edit source]

Bheka futhi: List of udinga Ama-Wikipedia 

Circle frame.svg 

Ukusatshalaliswa izihloko 32,765,226 ngolimi ezahlukene kwizihumusho (njengoba of 14 Agasti 2014) [91] 


   English (14%) 

   Swedish (5.5%) 

   Dutch (5.5%) 

   German (5.3%) 

   French (4.7%) 

   Russian (3.5%) 

   Italian (3.5%) 

   Spanish (3.4%) 

   Vietnamese (3.4%) 

   Waray-Waray (3.3%) 

   Okunye (51.2%) 

Kukhona Njengamanje 287 olimi kwizihumusho of Wikipedia (obizwa nangokuthi ngolimi izinguqulo, noma bamane udinga Ama-Wikipedia); ala, abayishumi nanye babe izihloko kwesigidi ngalinye (English, isiDashi, isiJalimane, isiFulentshi, isiNtaliyane, isiPolish, iSpanishi, Russian, isiSwidi, Vietnamese, no-Waray Waray), ezine ngaphezulu babe izihloko kuka 700,000 (isiCebuano, Chinese, isiJapane, isiPutukezi), 37 ngaphezulu babe izihloko kuka 100,000, kanti 73 ngaphezulu babe izihloko kuka 10,000. [92] [93] The kunawo, i English Wikipedia, has izihloko kuka million 4.5. Njengoba of June 2013, ngokusho Alexa, lo isizinda English (en.bywiki.com; English Wikipedia) uthola cishe 56% of traffic Wikipedia sika ayesehle, ne uqhekeko ezisele phakathi kwezinye izilimi (iSpanishi: 9%; Japanese: 8%; Russian: 6%; German: 5%; French: 4%; Italian:. 3%) [94] Njengoba of August 2014, izinhlelo zolimi kunayo eziyisithupha yilezi (ngokulandelana of esihlokweni count) the English, isiSwidi, Dutch, isiJalimane , isiFulentshi, futhi udinga Ama-Wikipedia zaseRussia. [95] i nokuhlalisana kokuqukethwe ezindiminingi on Wikipedia ube khona ngenxa Unicode, ogama ukwesekwa yethulwa phakathi Wikipedia ngoJanuwari 2002 by Brion Vibber emva kwase efanayo yena lwenteke izinhlamvu of Esperanto. [96] [97] 


Kusukela Wikipedia kusekelwe Web ngakhoke emhlabeni wonke, abanikela a edition olufanayo lulwimi ingasebenzisa zezigodi ezahlukene noma kungenzeka bavela emazweni ehlukene (njengoba kunjalo ngoba edition English). Lezi umehluko kungaholela abanye zingxabano phezu nesipelingi umehluko (isib color Versus color) [98] noma ngamaphuzu umbono. [99] 


Nakuba izinhlelo ezahlukene zolimi aphethwe nemigomo efana 'indawo hlangothi of umbono' global, baba washintsha namanye amaphuzu kwenchubomgomo kanye practice, iningi njengaku ekutheni izithombe ezingasekelwe ilayisense ngokukhululekile lingasetshenziswa ngaphansi isimangalo of ukusetshenziswa engenzeleli. [100] [101] [102] 


Jimmy Wales uye wachazwa Wikipedia ngokuthi "ukuze adale futhi ukusabalalisa a encyclopedia free of the esezingeni kwenzeke ukuba wonke umuntu ongashadile on planethi ngolimi lwabo siqu". [103] Nakuba ngamunye imisebenzi edition ngolimi ucishe ngokuzimela, ezinye imizamo kwenziwa ukuze aqondise kuzo bonke. Basuke kweLuhlelo ngokwengxenye by Meta-Wiki, Wiki i Wikimedia Foundation enikelwe nokugcina zonke imiklamo yayo (Wikipedia nabanye). [104] Ngokwesibonelo, Meta-Wiki inikeza izibalo ezibalulekile on zonke izibuyekezo ulimi Wikipedia, [105] futhi it ucondza uhlu lwezihloko njalo Wikipedia kumele babe [106] uhlu siphathelene kokuqukethwe eziyisisekelo by subject:. Biography, umlando, amazwe, umphakathi, isiko, isayensi, ezobuchwepheshe, kanye mathematics. Ngokuqondene nazo, akuyona ezingavamile for izihloko ezihlobene kakhulu olimini oluthile hhayi ukuba bangumfuziselo kwenye edition. Ngokwesibonelo, izihloko mayelana emadolobheni amancane e-United States bangase nje khona ngesiNgisi, ngisho nalapho behlangana notability criteria yezinye ngolimi Wikipedia imiklamo.


Ukulinganisa eminikelo amasheya ezivela ezifundazweni ezahlukene kuleli zwe ukuze ezahlukene Wikipedia editions 

Izihloko elihunyushwe bamele nje ingxenye encane athikili yaba izinhlelo iningi, ngokwengxenye ngenxa yokuthi translation ngokuzenzakalela lwezihloko is Ayivumeliwe. [107] Izihloko atholakalayo ngolimi ezingaphezu kwesisodwa angase anikele "links interwiki", okuyinto link izihloko uzakwabo kwamanye editions . 


Isihloko esanyatheliswa ngo yocwaningo PLoS ONE ngo-2012, besebenzisa amaphethini lomzimba imisebenzi isihloko omphakathi, kulinganiselwa isabelo iminikelo kuya kwizihumusho ezahlukene Wikipedia kusukela ezifundeni ezahlukene zomhlaba. Ngokwesibonelo, siye libike ukuthi ukulungiswa kusukela North America anqunyelwe pheze 50% in the English Wikipedia futhi lokhu value Sehlile amaphesenti amabili nanhlanu alula English Wikipedia. Lesi sihloko sibuye ihlanganisa ezinye asakazwa ngezilimi ezahlukene. [108] The Wikimedia Foundation uthemba ukwandisa inani abahleli in the Global South kuya amaphesenti amathathu nesikhombisa by 2015 [109] 


On 1 March 2014, The Economist esihlokweni esihloko sithi "Ikusasa Wikipedia" labala kuhlaziywa kwezimo ngokuqondene idatha enyatheliswa Wikimedia ngabachazela ukuthi: ". Inani wabahleli the lesiNgisi version uwile ngumuntu wesithathu eminyakeni eyisikhombisa" [110] Izinga attrition for abahleli abakhuthele English Wikipedia kwaba ekhonjiwe by The Economist njengoba kakhulu Ngokungafani izibalo for Wikipedia kwezinye izilimi (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist libike ukuthi isibalo nomthelela nge-avareji ka emihlanu lezinhlelo ngaphezulu ngenyanga kwaba kuqhathaniswa njalo kusukela 2008 for Wikipedia kwezinye izilimi cishe 42,000 abahleli phakathi variances emincane zonyaka ka abahleli phansi noma phezulu mayelana 2,000. Amazinga attrition for abahleli e English Wikipedia, by kuqhathanisa ebukhali, ishiwo njengoba NEKUKHULUMA ngo 2007 at cishe 50,000 abahleli okuyinto usunciphe 30,000 abahleli njengoba of ukuqala 2014 Ngesikhathi ecashunwe mkhuba rate, inani abahleli abakhuthele English Wikipedia ilahlekelwe cishe 20,000 abahleli attrition kusukela 2007, kanti emafayeleni mkhuba rate kubonisa ukulahlekelwa yomunye abahleli 20,000 by 2021, wehlele 10,000 abahleli asebenzayo on English Wikipedia by 2021 Uma kwesokunxele zingancishiswa. [110] Njengoba sazi ukuthi ukuhlaziywa mkhuba leyashicilelwa The Economist presents inani abahleli asebenzayo for Wikipedia kwezinye izilimi (non-English Wikipedia) njengoba osele kuqhathaniswa njalo futhi siphumelele ekusekeleni izinombolo zayo cishe 42,000 abahleli abakhuthele, umehluko uye bakhomba ukuphumelela Wikipedia kwezinye izilimi ukugcina esebenzayo yayo abahleli on nesisekelo nalesebentisa nokuqhubekayo. [110] Akukho ukuphawula senziwa ngokuqondene yikuphi nezindinganiso umahluko edit inqubomgomo kusuka Wikipedia kwezinye izilimi (non-English Wikipedia) wayeyonikeza ohlukile kwenzeke ukuba English Wikipedia for ngempumelelo ameliorating eningi umhleli attrition rates on ulimi lwesiNgisi Wikipedia. [111] 

Umlando[hlela | edit source]

Isihloko Main: Umlando Wikipedia


Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger 

Logo ukufundwa "Nupedia.com the encyclopedia free" in blue ne initial enkulu "N". 

Wikipedia odabuka zavela kwenye encyclopedia project, Nupedia. 

Wikipedia waqala njengendlela project ayahambelana for Nupedia, a free online lesiNgisi encyclopedia project ogama zihloko ezalotshwa ngu ochwepheshe babuyekeza ngaphansi inqubo esemthethweni. Nupedia yasungulwa ngoMashi 9, 2000, ngaphansi ubunikazi Bomis, yenkampani a web portal. Izibalo zako ezisemqoka babengamadodana CEO Bomis Jimmy Wales no Larry Sanger, umhleli-in-chief for Nupedia futhi kamuva Wikipedia. Nupedia kwaba ilayisense okokuqala ngaphansi Nupedia Open License yaso Content, ziguquka kuya GNU Free Documentation License ngaphambi kokusungulwa Wikipedia sika at ukunxusa Richard Stallman. [112] Sanger naseWales wasungula Wikipedia. [113] [114] Ngenkathi Wales is udumo ngokuchaza umgomo wokwenza encyclopedia obala kuhleleke, [115] [116] Sanger is udumo isu lokusebenzisa Wiki ukufinyelela lowo mgomo. [117] Ngo-January 10, 2001, Sanger ohlongozwayo on the Nupedia sekheli ohlwini ukudala Wiki njengoba project a 'feeder "for Nupedia. [118] 


audio sangaphandle 

  The Book of Great Knowledge, Ingxenye 1, Imibono noPawulu Kennedy, CBC, January 15, 2014. 

Wikipedia lase ngokomthetho umkhankaso on January 15, 2001, njengelungu edition-ngolimi lwesiNgisi single at www.wikipedia.com, [119] futhi umemezele by Sanger on the Nupedia Uhlu lwamaposi ekhompyutha. [115] inqubomgomo Wikipedia of 'phuzu-ka-umbono hlangothi "[120] kwase eyabekwa ezinyangeni zayo zokuqala. Ngale kwalokho, kwakukhona imithetho emibalwa ekuqaleni Wikipedia lasebenza ngokuzimela of Nupedia. [115] Ekuqaleni, Bomis wayehlose ukwenza Wikipedia ibhizinisi inzuzo. [121] 


Wikipedia yazuza qhaza zakuqala kusuka Nupedia, Slashdot ezithunyelwe, futhi search engine web indexing. Ngo-August 8, 2001, kwadingeka Wikipedia kuka 8,000 izihloko. [122] On September 25, 2001, kwadingeka Wikipedia kuka 13,000 izihloko. [123] Futhi ngasekupheleni 2001 sase esekhule izihloko cishe 20,000 no 18 olimi editions. Kwase 26 olimi asakazwa by sekwephuzile 2002, 46 ekupheleni 2003, futhi 161 ngu izinsuku okugcina 2004 [124] Nupedia and Wikipedia Bahlala kwaze amaseva yangaphambili sika zathathwa phasi unomphela ngo-2003, futhi okulotshwe kuwo ezahlanganiswa Wikipedia. English Wikipedia wadlula uphawu lwezihloko million ezimbili on September 9, 2007, okusenza le encyclopedia kunazo zonke ezake babuthana, odlulele ngisho 1407 Yongle Encyclopedia, ezazikade aphethwe irekhodi iminyaka 600. [125] 


Kokubala ukwesaba of ukukhangisa kwezohwebo kanye nokuntuleka okulawula Wikipedia, abasebenzisi of the Wikipedia Spanish olunjengemfoloko nokunye kusuka Wikipedia ukudala Enciclopedia Khulula ngo February 2002 [126] La liya wakhuthaza Wales ukumemezela ukuthi Wikipedia ngeke sibonise intengiso, futhi ukushintsha domain Wikipedia sika kusukela wikipedia.com ukuze wikipedia.org. [127] 

Nakuba English Wikipedia wafinyelela izihloko million ezintathu August 2009, ukwanda kwe-edition, ngokoMthetho izinombolo lwezihloko nesesiphelo nomthelela, kubonakala sengathi kwafinyelela umvuthwandaba nxazonke zakuqala 2007. [128] Around nawo-1800 kuya zihloko kwanezelwa nsuku zonke kuze encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 ukuthi isilinganiso kwaba cishe 800. [129] Iqembu at the Palo Alto Research Center isixhazululo le unciphisa sokukhula kuya okwandayo wedwa le project kanye ukumelana ukushintsha. [130] Abanye basikisela ukuthi ukukhula is flattening ngokwemvelo ngenxa izihloko ukuthi kungaba ngokuthi "low-choma izithelo" - izihloko ezisenza ngokucacile isihloko -. kakade zidalwe azakhela kabanzi [131] [132] [133] 

Ngo-November 2009, umcwaningi at the Rey Juan Carlos University e Madrid (Spain) lwathola ukuthi English Wikipedia wayengasenaso 49,000 abahleli phakathi nezinyanga ezintathu zokuqala of 2009; uma kuqhathaniswa, leli project walahlekelwa abahleli 4.900 nje kuphela phakathi nenkathi efanayo ngo-2008 [134] [135] The Wall Street Journal ekhonjiwe uhla imithetho zisetshenziswa kulungisa kanye nezimpikiswano ezihlobene kokuqukethwe okunjalo phakathi izizathu lokhu kuthambekela. [136] Wales baphikisana la izimangalo ngo-2009, bephika ukuwa, singabaze indlela lesifundo. [137] kweminyaka emibili kamuva, Wales wavuma ukuba khona nokwehla okuncane, siphawula ukwehla kusukela "kancane kuka 36,000 abalobi" ngoJuni 2010 kuya 35,800 in June 2011 [138] in the interview efanayo, Wales aphinde athi inani abahleli sasithi "ezinzile futhi esimeme," a isimangalo okuyinto ephenywa mit sika Technology Review esihlokweni 2013 esihloko sithi "ekuncipheni Wikipedia." [139 ] ngo July 2012, Atlantic libike ukuthi isibalo abaphathi nako ziyancipha. [140] in the 25 November 2013 issue of kamagazini New York, uKatherine Ward sathi "Wikipedia, iwebhusayithi lesithupha-kunazo-kusetshenziswa, elibheke i yangaphakathi esibucayi. Ngo 2013, mit sika Technology Review yembula ukuthi kusukela ngo-2007, le site ilahlekelwe yesithathu abahleli ivolontiya ukuvuselela bese ulungise izigidi le encyclopedia inthanethi of amakhasi nalabo zisekhona abaye egxile ngokuya on minutiae. "[141


Wikipedia blackout wokumelana uSopa ngoJanuwari 18, 2012 

Ngo-January 2007, Wikipedia wangena okokuqala uhlu top-eziyishumi amawebhusayithi athandwa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho comScore Networks. With million 42,9 izivakashi eziyingqayizivele, Wikipedia yayibekwe ezingeni number 9, odlulele iNew York Times (# 10) no Apple (# 11). Lokhu kwasho okukhulu phezu January 2006, lapho ayedla kwaba isibalo 33, kanye Wikipedia ethola azungeze 18.3 million izivakashi eziyingqayizivele. [142] Ngo February 2014, kwaba Wikipedia website lesithupha ethandwa kakhulu emhlabeni wonke ngokusho Alexa Internet, [94] ekutholeni 12 billion zokubukwa kwamakhasi njalo ngenyanga [143] (2.7 billion kusukela United States [144]). On 9 February 2014, The New York Times yabika ukuthi Wikipedia has 18 billion zokubukwa kwamakhasi futhi cishe abayizigidi ezingu-500 izivakashi eziyingqayizivele ngenyanga, "ngokwezinto izilinganiso liqinile comScore." [8] 


Ngo-January 18, 2012, i-English Wikipedia iqhaza ochungechungeni imibhikisho Bafunisiswa ngokumelene imithetho emibili ehlongozwayo e-United States Congress-the Stop Online ukudunwa Act (uSopa) kanye uvikele Act IP (PIPA) -ngomusa blacking out amakhasi alo for 24 amahora. [145] Ngaphezu 162 million abantu babebheka blackout Incazelo ikhasi esikhundleni saso Wikipedia nokuqukethwe okwesikhashana. [146] [147] 


Loveland and Reagle bathi, ngo nqubo, Wikipedia kulandela isiko omude encyclopedia ezingokomlando ukuthi zanqwabelana ngcono piecemeal ngokusebenzisa 'yokuzuza stigmergic ". [148] [149] 


Mhla zingama-20 Masingana 2014, USubodh Varma abikela i "The Economic Times" wabonisa ukuthi hhayi nje kwadingeka Wikipedia ichaza isicaba kodwa "walahlekelwa ngamasenti ali-10 wewalo enamakhasi ukubukwa ngonyaka odlule ngamunye. Yilokho ukwehla ngo-2 billion phakathi kuka-Zibandlela ka 2012 noka 2013. izinguquko ezithandwa kakhulu abahola:. enamakhasi imibono iWikipidiya yesiNgisi yehle ngo-12 senti, labo of version German Ngafaka by 17 cent kanye version Japanese per balahlekelwa 9 angu "[150] Varma wanezela ukuthi,"Njengoba abaphathi be-Wikipidiya bacabanga ukuthi lokhu kungaba ngenxa yamaphutha wokubala, abanye osolwazi babona ukuthi iphrojekhi yeGrafu Yolwazi Lweguguli Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[150] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at NewYork University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Center for internet and Security indicated that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need toclick [any further]."[150] 


Graph of number of articles in the English Wikipedia showing steady growth 

Number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue) 

Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia showing a max around 2007 

Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue) 

Graph showing the number of days between every 10,000,000th edit (ca. 50 days), from 2005 to 2011 

Number of days between every 10,000,000th edit 


Analysis of content[hlela | edit source]

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia 


Accuracy of content[hlela | edit source]

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia 


Quality of writing[hlela | edit source]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias[hlela | edit source]

See also: Notability in English Wikipedia 


Coverage of topics and selectional bias[hlela | edit source]

Systemic bias[hlela | edit source]

Explicit content[hlela | edit source]

Main category: Wikipedia objectionable content  See also: Criticism of Wikipedia § Sexual content  Main articles: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons 


Privacy[hlela | edit source]

Criticism[hlela | edit source]

Further information: Criticism of Wikipedia 


Operation[hlela | edit source]

A group of Wikipedia editors may form a WikiProject to focus their work on a specific topic area, using its associated discussion page to coordinate changes across multiple articles.[232] 


Wikimedia Foundation and the Wikimedia chapters[edit] 

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikimedia Foundation logo 

Software operations and support[hlela | edit source]

See also: MediaWiki 


Internal quality control and assessment of importance[hlela | edit source]

Hardware operations and support[hlela | edit source]

Ambox current red.svg 


Internal research and operational development[hlela | edit source]

Internal news publications[hlela | edit source]

Access to content[hlela | edit source]

Content licensing[hlela | edit source]

Methods of access[hlela | edit source]

Mobile access[hlela | edit source]

See also: Help:Mobile access 


Impact[hlela | edit source]

Readership[hlela | edit source]

Cultural significance[hlela | edit source]

Main article: Wikipedia in culture


Awards[hlela | edit source]

Satire[hlela | edit source]

See also Category:Parodies of Wikipedia. 


Sister projects – Wikimedia[hlela | edit source]

Main article: Wikimedia project 


Publishing[hlela | edit source]

Scientific use[hlela | edit source]

Related projects[hlela | edit source]